In order to clone the RIOT repository, you need the Git revision control system and run the following command:
A set of common tools and a toolchain for the hardware you target needs to be installed first.
Most of the RIOT OS developers are using Linux on their development PCs, so you can expect the most streamlined experience here. Other POSIX-compliant OSes such as current versions of macOS or the various BSD flavours will also be fine - however, we rely on users to report bugs regarding tooling incompatibilities here. So expect occasional issues for the development branch and please help testing during the feature freeze period, if you develop on macOS or BSD.
Native development on Windows machines is not officially supported. What works well is using Linux in a virtual machine, but at much lower performance than running Linux natively. For development using the Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) is a good option (installation instructions here), but it is (as of October 2021) not possible to directly access USB devices from Linux. As a result, accessing the serial connection to a board running RIOT, flashing it, and on-chip-debugging from WSL will not be possible. (It is possible to pass through the file system of USB storage device. This should allow flashing boards that have an UF2 compatible from within WSL, but this has not been tested yet.) Hence, WSL users will have to use native Windows tools for accessing the serial connection and flashing the board.
The following tools are required or useful regardless of the architecture and board you are developing for:
For example, in Ubuntu the above tools can be installed with the following command:
sudo apt install git gcc-arm-none-eabi make gcc-multilib openocd gdb-multiarch doxygen wget unzip python3-serial
BOARD=<INSERT_TARGET_BOARD_HERE> make info-programmers-supported in your application folder lists the programmers supported by RIOT for the given board.
PROGRAMMER=openocdto just use OpenOCD instead
arm-none-eabito link against picolibc instead of newlib
riscvand end with
-unknown-elf. Note that most packages are multilib, e.g.
riscv64-unknown-elfwill likely work fine for 32 bit RISC-V boards)
BUILD_IN_DOCKER=1. Note that for running the executable you still need a multilib system (or 32 bit Linux) with glibc a standard C library.
RIOT uses GNU make as build system. The simplest way to compile and link an application with RIOT, is to set up a Makefile providing at least the following variables:
APPLICATION: should contain the (unique) name of your application
BOARD: specifies the platform the application should be built for by default
RIOTBASE: specifies the path to your copy of the RIOT repository (note, that you may want to use
here, to give a relative path)
Additionally it has to include the
Makefile.include, located in RIOT's root directory:
You can use Make's
?= operator in order to allow overwriting variables from the command line. For example, you can easily specify the target platform, using the sample Makefile, by invoking make like this:
Besides typical targets like
doc, RIOT provides the special targets
term to invoke the configured flashing and terminal tools for the specified platform. These targets use the variable
PORT for the serial communication to the device. Neither this variable nor the targets
term are mandatory for the native port.
For the native port,
PORT has a special meaning: it is used to identify the tap interface if the
netdev_tap module is used. The target
debug can be used to invoke a debugger on some platforms. For the native port the additional targets such as
valgrind exist. Refer to
cpu/native/README.md for additional information
Some RIOT directories contain special Makefiles like
Makefile.dep. The first one can be included into other Makefiles to define some standard targets. The files called
Makefile.include are used in
cpu to append target specific information to variables like
INCLUDES, setting the include paths.
Makefile.dep serves to define dependencies.
Unless specified otherwise, make will create an elf-file as well as an Intel hex file in the
bin folder of your application directory.
Learn more about the build system in the Wiki
RIOT provides a number of examples in the
examples/ directory. Every example has a README that documents its usage and its purpose. You can build them by typing
into your shell.
To flash the application to a board just type
You can then access the board via the serial interface:
If you are using multiple boards you can use the
PORT macro to specify the serial interface:
Note that the
PORT macro has a slightly different semantic in
native. Here it is used to provide the name of the TAP interface you want to use for the virtualized networking capabilities of RIOT.
pyterm as the default terminal application. It is shipped with RIOT in the
dist/tools/pyterm/ directory. If you choose to use another terminal program you can set
TERMPROG (and if need be the
You may not see the greeting
main(): This is RIOT!
when you flash the board. In this case, type
reboot in the command line or reboot manually.
Many modules in RIOT offer configuration options that will be considered during compile-time.They are modeled as macros that can be overridden by the user. Currently there are two ways of doing this: using
CFLAGS or via Kconfig (the last one is currently only possible for a subset of modules).
When devices have a common access interface, having a default configuration to enable them across platforms, without having to explicitly specify which modules to include, comes in handy. For this, two pseudomodules are defined:
saul_default: will enable all the drivers of sensors and actuators that are present in the target platform.
netdev_default: will enable all the drivers of network devices present in the target platform.
Docker is a platform that allows packaging software into containers that can easily be run on any Linux that has Docker installed.
You can download a RIOT Docker container from the Docker Hub and then use that to build your project making use of all toolchains that we've preinstalled in the container.
It can be helpful to use Docker especially if you are working with ESP, since the installation might be easier this way.
To use the RIOT docker build image, the Docker application needs to be installed on your system. To install Docker, depending on your operating system, use
sudo apt-get install docker or a variant.
The user on your computer requires permission to access and use docker. There are two ways to manage this:
docker. If so, then adding yourself to that group (and logging out and in again) should grant you permission.
makeshould be instructed to use
DOCKER="sudo docker"in the command line.
Finally, download the pre-built RIOT Docker container:
This will take a while. If it finishes correctly, you can then use the toolchains contained in the Docker container: (from the riot root):
The RIOT build system provides support for using the Docker container to build RIOT projects, so you do not need to type the long docker command line every time:
(from the directory you would normally run make, e.g. examples/default)
If your user does not have permissions to access the Docker daemon:
to always use Docker for building, set
BUILD_IN_DOCKER=1 (and if necessary
DOCKER="sudo docker") in the environment:
running make without specifying
BUILD_IN_DOCKER=1 will still use Docker (because of the environment variable)
On some Ubuntu versions a make with
BUILD_IN_DOCKER=1 can't resolve the host name of for example github.com. To fix this add the file
/etc/docker/daemon.json with the address of your DNS Server.
For more details see Build In Docker.
compile_commands.json for the selected board can be generated by running inside the application folder the following:
This target will honor the variables controlling the build process such as
DEVELHELP, etc. just like the usual build process. This works without actual compilation. By default, the
compile_commands.json is placed in the RIOT base directory. This behavior can be overwritten using the
COMPILE_COMMANDS_PATH variable by specifying the full absolute path (including file name) of the
Note: By default, the built-in include search directories of GCC will be explicitly added and flags incompatible with
clangd will be dropped. This will allow using
clangd as language server out of the box. If this is not desired, run
export COMPILE_COMMANDS_FLAGS="" to turn modification of the compile commands off. For a list of available flags, run
./dist/tools/compile_commands/compile_commands.py --help in the RIOT base directory.
If you compile RIOT for the native cpu and include the
netdev_tap module, you can specify a network interface like this:
PORT=tap0 make term
There is a shell script in
tapsetup which you can use to create a network of tap interfaces.
To create a bridge and two (or
count at your option) tap interfaces:
A detailed example can be found in